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Accounting: Codification Standards


Citing Standards from the New Codification

Check with your instructor if there is a way he or she wants you to cite a codification.


The tutorials are geared to the FASB database, but the general information on the codification is still useful.

FASB Codification

FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC)

On July 1, 2009 the Financial Accounting standards Board (FASB) instituted a major change in the way accounting standards are organized. The FASB Accounting Standards Codification (FASB Codification) became the single official source of authoritative, nongovernmental U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). Now only one level of authoritative U.S. GAAP exists, other than guidance issued by the SEC. All other literature is non-authoritative.  The Codification reorganizes thousands of U.S. GAAP pronouncements into roughly 90 accounting Topics, and displays all Topics using a consistent structure. Also included is relevant SEC guidance that follows the same topical structure used in the Codification.  The reorganization is thought to simplify U.S. GAAP authoritative literature.

The Codification includes the following authoritative literature issued by standard setters other than the SEC that apply to all entities (other than governmental entities):

       Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) 
      Statements (FAS) 
      Interpretations (FIN) 
      Technical Bulletins (FTB) 
      Staff Positions (FSP) 
      Staff Implementation Guides (Q&A) 
      Statement No. 138 Examples

       Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) 
      Topic D

        Derivative Implementation Group (DIG) Issues

        Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinions

        Accounting Research Bulletins (ARB)

        Accounting Interpretations (AIN)

       American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) 
      Statements of Position (SOP) 
      Audit & Accounting Guides (AAG)—only incremental accounting guidance 
      Practice Bulletins (PB), including the Notices to Practitioners elevated to 
      Practice Bulletin status by Practice Bulletin 1 
      Technical Inquiry Service (TIS)—only for Software Revenue Recognition

·         SEC guidance contained in the Codification

      Regulation S-X 
      Financial Reporting Releases (FRR)
      Accounting Series Releases (ASR) 
      Interpretive Releases (IR) 
      SEC Staff guidance in

·         Staff Accounting Bulletins (SAB)

·         EITF Topic D and SEC Staff Observer comments.

RIA Checkpoint database will provide you with access to Accounting and Auditing materials, including the new FASB Accounting Standards Codification and the prior standards and codes.

Reference Books

Go to the index of these reference books and look up your topic for more information.


Georgiades, G. (2011). GAAP Financial statement disclosures manual. Chicago: CCH. (REF HF 5658 .M55 2018-19)
This reference book is a source of financial statement disclosures and key presentation requirements. There are hundreds of examples of sample footnote disclosures. Use this reference work to look up an ASC topic and get an executive summary, the disclosure and key presentation requirements, and examples of financial statement disclosures. Topics are arranged numerically into 9 parts, consistent with the organization of the Codification.

Part 1: General Principles (ASC Topics 100s)
Part 2: Presentation (ASC Topics 200s)
Part 3: Assets (ASC Topics 300s)
Part 4: Liabilities (ASC Topics 400s)
Part 5: Equity (ASC Topics 500s)
)Part 6: Revenue (ASC Topics 600s)
Part 7: Expenses (ASC Topics 700s)
Part 8: Broad Transactions (ASC Topics 800s)
Part 9: Other

Afterman. A. B., & Jones, R. H. (2011). Accounting and auditing disclosure manual. New York: Thomson Reuters. (REF HF 5658 .A23 )
This annual reference work contains relevant disclosure requirements with hundreds of examples of sample language that can be used to prepare financial statements and auditors' reports complying with GAAP, GAAS, and IAS.

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. (2010). Accounting trends & techniques. New York: Author. (REF HF 5681 .B2 .A35)
The annual reference work compiles annual reporting and disclosure data with examples drawn from a survey of the annual reports of some 500 publicly traded companies. ASC (Accounting Standards Codification) is included when referenced in the statements of the reporting entities.

Siegel, J. G., Levine, M. H., Qureshi, A. A., & Shim, J. K. (2018). GAAP Handbook of policies and procedures. Chicago: CCH. (REF HF 5616 .U5 .S54)
This practical reference book contains all of the important authoritative pronouncements on GAAP. It contains accounting principles, financial reporting presentation requirements, recommended disclosures, and specialized accounting topics.

Williams, J. R., Carcello, J. V., & Neal, T. L. (2011). GAAP Guide. Chicago: CCH. (REF HF 5616 .U5 .M526 2011) 2 vols.
This reference guide analyzes AICPA Accounting Research Bulletins, APB Opinions, and FASB Statements and Interpretations. It includes citations to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification organized alphabetically by topic. There is a section of "uncertain tax positions" which is one of the ACC 550 research topics.

The library also owns hard copies of the Accounting Policy & Practice Portfolios. They can be found in the Reference section (REF HF 5616 .U5 .A345). Each portfolio will bear a number after the call number. For example:

Accounting for Income Taxes: Uncertain Tax Positions (FIN 48) (REF HF 5616.45 .A345 No. 5002)
Accounting for Income Taxes: Uncertain Tax Positions - Selected Topics  (REF HF 5616.45 .A345 No. 5003)

 More information: View a list of all portfolios.

Codification Standards

Checkpoint is the best database to use to find Codification standards.

Quick Reference Guides to the Codification

Pre-Codification Standards

You can use the RIA Checkpoint database to access the FASB pre-codification standards.

The FASB web site also provides these FASB pre-codification documents free of charge. Please note that the Codification Standards are not free and only available to subscribers.